VTE Prophylaxis for ENT surgery - Reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism
|Publication: 01/08/2010 --|
|Last review: 26/05/2020|
|Next review: 01/05/2023|
|Approved By: Trust Clinical Guidelines Group|
|Copyright© Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust 2020|
This Clinical Guideline is intended for use by healthcare professionals within Leeds unless otherwise stated.
Thromboprophylaxis in ENT
NICE clinical guideline 92; Venous thromboembolism: reducing the risk was issued in January 2010, updated June 2015 and replaced by NICE guideline NG89 Venous thromboembolism in over 16s: reducing the risk of hospital-acquired deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in March 2018
Leeds Teaching Hospitals risk assessment tool is used to stratify the risk of VTE for each patient.
The attached algorithm will be used to decide prophylactic treatment for ENT and Head and Neck surgery see text below.
ENT (non head and neck patients)
Clinical algorithms see ENT pathway.
For non head and neck surgery patients.
Patients undergoing ENT non head and neck surgery will be assessed for VTE risk factors and bleeding risk using the trust risk assessment tool. The ENT flow algorithyms will determine the treatment. Those patients identified as having a risk factor for venous thromboemobolism will be treated with anti-embolic stockings (providing no contra-indications - see Guideline for the care of patients wearing anti embolism stockings and
Non head and neck patients who have a past history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) will be given low molecular weight heparin. If low molecular weight heparin is required tinzaparin 4500 units daily commencing 12 hours prior to surgery until the patient is fully mobile for in-patients. In the unusual occurrence of a day patient requiring low molecular weight heparin a single dose will be given once back from surgery. For patients with impaired renal function and extremes of weight see link.
Head and Neck Surgery patients
These patients will be risk assessed using the trust risk assessment tool. Head and neck patients are generally given the low dose of tinzaparin as they are at an increased risk of complications due to bleeding e.g. haematoma occurring at the incision site which can obstruct the airway and lead to respiratory arrest. Also the incidence of PE and VTE in this group of patients appears to be generally low.
For those with identified risk factors the below protocol should be followed.
Anti embolic stockings only for:-
- Small Head and Neck cases
- Submandibular gland surgery
- Neck nodes
- Thyroglossal cysts
- Branchial cysts
- Parotid surgery
- Thyroid surgery
Anti embolic stockings and Flotrons for:-
- Neck dissections
Anti embolic stockings, Flotrons and LMWH for:-
- Patients with previous thromboemobolic disease
- Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, protein C and protein S deficiency.
- Patients who will be slow to mobilize e.g. patients with flaps or have predicted longer ICU/HDU stays (e.g. respiratory problems)
For patients requiring low molecular weight heparin the policy will be to give tinzaparin 4500 units daily starting 12 hours prior to surgery until the patient is fully mobile. Patients with a creatinine clearance less than 20mls/minute will be given enoxaparin 20mg daily.
Anti Embolic Stockings. are contra indicated in patients with:-
- Suspected/proven peripheral vascular disease
- Peripheral arterial bypass graft
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Recent skin graft
- Cardiac failure / leg oedema
- Limb deformity
All patients should be given verbal and written information about their risk of VTE on admission this should include what will happen, side effects and how they can help to reduce the risk. On discharge they should be given verbal and written information about the signs and symptoms of VTE and what to do should they occur, they should also be given instructions on how to use their thromboprophylaxis if required on discharge and how long it should continue for. Leaflet LN004075 contains this information and is available to order from the print unit
Information for Discharge
Notify the patient's GP if they have been discharged with pharmacological and/or mechanical VTE prophylaxis to be used at home
All heparins are porcine based
If patients do not want a porcine based product consider fondaparinux 2.5mg s/c once a day reduced to 1.5mg s/c once a day if CrCl 20-50ml/min) Contra-indicated if CrCl < 20ml/min. Do not use if the patient has a latex allergy.
Monitoring for Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
All patients started on any type of heparin should have a baseline platelet count performed.
Further monitoring is not required for patients on low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
|Target patient group:||ENT patients including Head and Neck surgery|
|Target professional group(s):||Secondary Care Doctors
H Camaghan et al. Incidence of Venous thromboembolic disease in otolaryngology-Head and neck patients: A retrospective study. – Poster presented at British Association of head and neck oncologists April 2010
Trust Clinical Guidelines Group
LHP version 2.0
Equity and Diversity
The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust is committed to ensuring that the way that we provide services and the way we recruit and treat staff reflects individual needs, promotes equality and does not discriminate unfairly against any particular individual or group.