New Oral Anticoagulants for Patients Undergoing Elective Procedures - Guidelines for the Peri-operative Management of

Publication: 22/02/2016  --
Last review: 31/07/2019  
Next review: 31/07/2022  
Clinical Guideline
CURRENT 
ID: 4492 
Approved By: Trust Clinical Guidelines Group 
Copyright© Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust 2019  

 

This Clinical Guideline is intended for use by healthcare professionals within Leeds unless otherwise stated.
For healthcare professionals in other trusts, please ensure that you consult relevant local and national guidance.

Guidelines for the Peri-operative Management of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) for patients undergoing elective procedures

  1. Aims
  2. Objectives
  3. Scope
  4. Exclusions
  5. Background
  6. Stopping anticoagulation therapy pre-operatively
  7. Assessing the risk of post operative bleeding
  8. Restarting anticoagulation after surgery

1. Aims

This guideline discusses the perioperative management of patients taking apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban (direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) previously called NOACs) and when these should be stopped prior to elective surgery.

2. Objectives

To provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of perioperative anticoagulation.

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3. Scope

This guideline applies to adult patients requiring interruption to their oral anti-coagulation prior to elective procedures.

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4. Exclusions

  • Emergency surgery
    Emergency surgery in anticoagulated patients should be discussed urgently with the on call haematology team. Contact via switchboard.

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5. Background

There are just under one million patients in the UK who are taking oral anticoagulants1. Peri-operative management of patients taking oral anticoagulants must balance the risk of thrombosis associated with the interruption of anticoagulation and the risk of haemorrhage associated with the procedure and the recommencement of anticoagulation.  Both may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality risks.
The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) used in the management of VTE (venous thromboembolism) or the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF).
The aim of interrupting anticoagulation therapy peri-operatively is to minimise the anticoagulant effect at the time of surgery. The DOACs rarely require bridging therapy as they are shorter acting than VKAs and therefore can be ceased later, thus, not requiring bridging therapy.
Apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban differ in their half-lives (which are elevated by worsening renal function) and thus have different advice about the cessation of the medication prior to surgery.
The advice on stopping the DOACs prior to surgery is summarised in table 1 below2,3:
To note: DOACs have variable effects on coagulation screens and an INR of 1 in a patient on a DOAC does not mean they are not anticoagulated.

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6. Stopping anticoagulation therapy pre-operatively

  • Minor surgery that does not require interruption of anticoagulation

    For many minor surgical procedures (e.g. minor dermatological surgery, minor dental surgery, cataract surgery), where there is a very low bleeding risk and warfarin would be continued with a therapeutic INR, no interruption of anticoagulation is required. It may be pertinent for procedures done within 4 hours of a dose of oral anticoagulant for the dose to be withheld until haemostasis is achieved after the procedure. (i.e. a morning dose of rivaroxaban normally taken at 8am could be delayed until midday for a procedure timed at 10am) If in doubt contact the surgeon to confirm.

Table 1. Suggested guide for pre-operative management for patients taking DOACs 2,3

NOAC

Renal Function
Creatinine clearance calculator http://nww.lhp.leedsth.nhs.uk/Calculators/Renal/index.aspx

Procedure with low bleeding risk
12-25% residual anticoagulant effect at time of surgery acceptable

Procedure with high bleeding risk
<10% residual anticoagulant effect at time of surgery acceptable

Rivaroxaban (once daily)

CrCl > 30ml/min

Last dose of rivaroxaban 2 days prior to procedure ie. miss one dose and no rivaroxaban taken on day of procedure

Last dose of rivaroxaban 3 days prior to procedure ie. miss two doses andno rivaroxaban taken on day of procedure

CrCl 15-30ml/min. Patients with a CRCl   < 15ml/min should not be receiving rivaroxaban - discuss with haematology

Last dose of rivaroxaban 3 days prior to procedure ie. miss two doses and no rivaroxaban taken on day of procedure

Last dose of rivaroxaban 4 days prior to procedure ie. miss three dosesand no rivaroxaban taken on day of procedure

Edoxaban (once daily)

 

CrCl > 30ml/min

Last dose of edoxaban 2 days prior to procedure ie. miss one dose and no edoxaban taken on day of procedure

Last dose of edoxaban 3 days prior to procedure ie. miss two doses no edoxaban taken on day of procedure

CrCl 15-30ml/min. Patients with a CRCl   < 15ml/min should not be receiving edoxaban - discuss with haematology

Last dose of edoxaban 3 days prior to procedure ie. miss two doses andno edoxaban taken on day of procedure

Last dose of edoxaban 4 days prior to procedure ie. miss three doses and no edoxaban taken on day of procedure

Apixaban (twice daily)

CrCl > 30ml/min

Last dose of apixaban 2 days prior to procedure ie. miss two doses and no apixaban taken on day of procedure

Last dose of apixaban 3 days prior to procedure ie. miss four doses and no apixaban taken on day of procedure

CrCl 15-30ml/min Patients with a CRCl   < 15ml/min should not be receiving apixaban - discuss with haematology

 

Last dose of apixaban 3 days prior to procedure ie. miss four doses and no apixaban taken on day of procedure

Last dose of apixaban 4 days prior to procedure ie. miss six doses and noapixaban taken on day of procedure

Dabigatran (twice daily)

CrCl > 50ml/min

Last dose of dabigatran 2 days prior to procedure ie. miss two doses and no dabigatran taken on day of procedure

Last dose of dabigatran 3-4 days prior to procedure ie. miss four-six doses and no dabigatran taken on day of procedure

CrCl 30-50ml/min
Patients with a CRCl   < 30ml/min should not be receiving dabigatran - discuss with haematology

Last dose of dabigatran 3 days prior to procedure ie. miss four doses and no dabigatran taken on day of procedure

Last dose of dabigatran 5-7 days prior to procedure ie. miss eight-twelve doses and no dabigatran taken on day of procedure

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7. Assessing the risk of post operative bleeding

The administration of antithrombotic therapy in the perioperative period should consider the risk of bleeding associated with the surgery or procedure.

The risk of perioperative bleeding is based on the risk of bleeding associated with the surgery or procedure combined with an assessment of postoperative haemostasis.

Account should be taken of the combined risk of bleeding from surgery and the administration of anticoagulation.
After procedures associated with a high risk of bleeding, post-operative anticoagulation therapy should be administered with caution, and deferring therapeutic anticoagulation is usually the safer option.

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8. Restarting anticoagulation after surgery

Oral intake should have been re-established before restarting anticoagulation. If the bleeding risk is low and adequate haemostasis is secured, DOAC therapy can be resumed at the usual dose on the day following surgery/procedure. It must be remembered that the peak of anticoagulant activity after a dose of any of the DOACs is 2-4 hours.

In cases where patients are at high risk of bleeding, VTE prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) can be prescribed if safe to do so then DOAC therapy may be reintroduced 24-48 hours post-operatively (and LMWH stopped). In the case of complicated patients, or if haemostasis is not adequately secured, haematology should be contacted for advice.

Provenance

Record: 4492
Objective:

To provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of perioperative anticoagulation.

Clinical condition:

Perioperative anticoagulation

Target patient group: Adult patients undergoing elective procedures where interruption of their oral anticoagulation is required
Target professional group(s): Pharmacists
Secondary Care Doctors
Secondary Care Nurses
Adapted from:

Evidence base

  1. Self-monitoring in Anticoagulation patients. Roche.co.uk 2014
  2. NEW/NOVEL ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS (NOACS): PERI-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT Thrombosis Canada 2015. http://thrombosiscanada.ca/?page_id=18#
  3. Heidbuchel et al. EHRA Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary. European Heart Journal. 2013

Approved By

Trust Clinical Guidelines Group

Document history

LHP version 1.0

Related information

Not supplied

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